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                                                              美國60年前的一起核事故 仍在威脅當地居民的健康

                                                              本文由:李安吉 编辑 2019年07月18日 21:03 民生百态001 ℃


                                                              The long-planned﹡﹡?, much-delayed cleanup could finally start this year∵♀, Russ Edmondson⊿◇♂, a spokesman for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control◇∴〇, which is overseeing the remediation♂◇, said late last year△〇♂。 In Aprilπ∟?, however⊙, he appeared to back off that statement↑。

                                                              1946年至1958年∴,美國政府在馬紹爾群島的幾個小島上進行了67次核試驗♂∴◇,這些小島被稱為環礁⌒。More than 60 years later⊿, researchers at Columbia University say radiation on four of these atolls remains alarmingly high -- in some areas ten to 1♂π,000 times higher than radioactive areas near the Chernobyl powerplant◇□♀, which exploded in 1986△?⊿, and Fukushima◇, where an earthquake and tsunami caused a nuclear disaster in 2011△。





                                                              The Public Health Institute『s 2012 California Breast Cancer Mapping Project found that the rate of breast cancer is higher in Thousand Oaks□◇, Simi Valley♂, Oak Park and Moorpark than in almost any other place in the state△↑♂。

                                                              As a result of this partial meltdown and numerous other reactor accidents♂⊿?, radioactive fires▽?, massive chemical contamination in handling of the radioactive and chemically contaminated toxic materials that were routinely burned in open pits through the years at the site♂□∟, it remains one of the most highly contaminated sites in the country□〇。

                                                              (圖 via VC Star)當地時間7月13日上午10點⊙∟,當地居民、活動家和政府官員聚集在西米穀的Rancho Tapo社區公園☆⊙,舉行了一場紀念活動♀⊿⊙,紀念發生在1959年的聖蘇珊娜核武器試驗場(Santa Susana Field Lab)的核災難∵。

                                                              In addition☆⊙♂, studies by cancer registries found elevated rates of bladder cancer associated with proximity to SSFL〇⊙∵。



                                                              ▲Parts of the Marshall Islands are more radioactive than Chernobyl and Fukushima┊, study finds (via CNN)


                                                              ▲Activists to mark 60th anniversary of partial nuclear meltdown at Santa Susana Field Lab (via VC Star)

                                                              聖蘇珊娜核武器試驗場火箭發動機試驗台(圖 via dailynews.com)儘管試驗場曾經發生了核事故π♂,清理工作工作也仍未開始∴⊙,但距離洛杉磯市中心25英里的這個試驗場?,方圓10英里的範圍內卻居住着大約50萬居民﹡∟。嚴重的污染﹡,對當地居民的健康造成了嚴重的影響﹡∟∟。許多居民罹患一些罕見的疾病☆﹡。

                                                              The Sodium Reactor Experiment or SRE was the first reactor to provide commercial nuclear power to a U.S?。 city in Moorpark♂〇□。 Then on July 13⊿, 1959┊◇□, a partial meltdown occurred in which a third of the fuel experienced melting﹡﹡。



                                                              (圖 via Maps4news.com)據美國多家媒體報道?♂,最新的一項研究表明△,美國冷戰期間在太平洋馬紹爾群島進行的67次核試驗⊿,產生的核輻射劑量?∴﹡,比切爾諾貝利和福島核電站事故造成的核輻射量還要高﹡。



                                                              此外▽▽,癌症登記處的研究發現⊿⊿∟,(該地區)膀胱癌的發病率升高與鄰近聖蘇珊娜核武器試驗場有關☆。▲60 Years Since the Largest U.S∟。 Nuclear Accident and Captured Federal Agencies (via Common Dreams)

                                                              In 2006♂, a cluster of retinoblastoma cases☆, a rare eye cancer affecting young childrenπ, was identified within an area downwind of the site↑♂。 The retinoblastoma mothers meeting at Los Angeles『s Children』s Hospital ultimately formed a chemo carpool♂∴。



                                                              而由美國核試驗對環境造成污染和對人類健康造成影響的⌒,還遠不止這一處∵☆。二戰期間∴∟,美國曾佔領馬紹爾群島(Marshall Islands)〇⌒。直到上世紀70年代末↑∟♂,馬紹爾群島一直是美國領土?。馬紹爾群島目前是一個獨立的國家∴,但與美國簽訂了自由聯盟協議(Compact of Free Association)◇?□。


                                                              這座試驗場現在主要為航空巨頭波音公司所有◇♂,分為四個區域⊿,外加北部和南部緩衝區♀。Boeing is responsible for cleaning up Area 3⌒?, its part of Area 1 and the Southern Buffer Zone☆。 NASA administers a smaller portion of the site and is responsible for remediating Area 2 and its part of Area 1┊π◇。 The U.S□┊﹡。 Department of Energy doesn』t own any land at the site〇, but is responsible for cleaning up Area 4 and the Northern Buffer Zone∵┊﹡。

                                                              These toxins are associated with a multitude of health risks◇♂?。 Many are cancer causing∴, others are neurotoxins causing a host of issues including learning disabilities▽▽♂, birth defects and many other health effects⊙。 The most vulnerable tend to be women and children◇⊿。


                                                              1958年⊙♀,聖蘇珊娜核武器試驗場核反應堆(圖 via Common Dreams)如今△﹡◇,這個試驗場由波音公司、美國能源部和NASA共同負責清理⌒﹡。但清理工作卻一拖再拖♂┊,尚未執行⌒◇。The site is now largely owned by aerospace giant Boeing and is divided into four areas plus northern and southern buffer zones□♀♂。


                                                              Public Health Institute2012年的加州乳腺癌地圖項目發現♂┊□,千橡市、西米穀、橡樹園和墨爾帕克市的乳腺癌發病率幾乎高於加州其他任何地方↑∟∵。


                                                              此外∟◇☆,這些有毒物質並不會停留在這個區域⊿♂,而是隨着下雨、颳風或者火災等擴散至其他區域□∴π。The 2017 Woolsey fire is a most recent example☆♂♂。 After initially denials〇?, officials finally admitted the fire actually started on the field lab site burning across almost the entire site and potentially spreading toxic chemicals over the basin☆△π。


                                                              ▲60 Years Since the Largest U.S□□。 Nuclear Accident and Captured Federal Agencies (via Common Dreams)

                                                              Bikini Island was found to have the highest levels of radiation of areas studied?∵⌒, with the report『s authors recommending that Bikini remains uninhabited↑♂, owing to its high levels of radiation↑?。



                                                              The 2⊙,850-acre field lab in unincorporated hills just southeast of Simi Valley experienced a partial nuclear meltdown in 1959 when it was the Rocketdyne/Atomics International rocket engine test and nuclear facility◇⊙♀, and other chemical and radioactive contamination over the yearsπ⊿。


                                                              ▲Activists to mark 60th anniversary of partial nuclear meltdown at Santa Susana Field Lab (via VC Star)

                                                              ▲60 Years Since the Largest U.S□。 Nuclear Accident and Captured Federal Agencies (via Common Dreams)


                                                              HBO今年5月熱播的迷你劇《切爾諾貝利》(Chernobyl)用它的「真實感」再現了令人毛骨悚然的核威力〇∴?。不過⌒∴,就在切爾諾貝利核電站禁區輻射劑量逐漸減少?⊙?,禁區逐步開放成為旅遊聖地之時□,美國南加州洛杉磯近郊的西米穀(Simi Valley)﹡, 60年前也發生過一起核事故——它的清理工作卻尚未開始?♂,時至今日還在持續威脅着當地居民的健康……

                                                              比基尼環礁水下原子彈爆炸(圖 via CNN)

                                                              From 1946 to 1958┊▽⊙, the US government conducted 67 nuclear tests on several small islands -- called atolls -- in the Marshall Islands♂。


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